BioFil Technology

For treatment of organic wastewater.

Sewage Treatment - BioFil-AE Industrial Effluent Treatment - BioFil-AA Hospital Waste Treatment - BioFil-AH Laboratory Waste Treatment - BioFil-AL

BioFil is a proprietary waste treatment process developed jointly by Prof. Dr. Azni Idris and Universiti Putra Malaysia with Patent Application No: P19502143


A BioFil tank is used to treat high strengt palm oil effluent (POME)

Biofil technology is a proprietary system developed by the Waste Technology Centre, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). It is a simple and innovative Biofilter process which is capable of treating high strength organic effluent at a minimum operating cost. It is a product of 8 years of research works carried out at UPM in particular related to treatment of the palm oil mill effluent. Full scale and pilot studies confirm the suitability of BioFil technology to treat large variety of effluent such as paper mill, poultry processing and palm oil mill. Resent application in treatment of sewage effluent has proven good results in achieving compliance to Standard A effluent discharge limit.

The technology was innovated to provide less space, use less power and be more 'environmental friendly'. There are two versions developed to treat specific waste streams, enabling plants to be built to individual industrial requirement and to whatever capacity requirement to cope with the anticipated level of effluent.

The aerobic BioFil (known as BioFil-AE) is capable of eliminating residual BOD in sewage and industrial effluent to below 10 mg/l.

The anaerobic BioFil is targeted to destroy high strength effluent exceeding 1000 mg/l to 150 000 mg/l of BOD.

BioFil technology is marketed and technically supported by Pakar Management Technology (M) Sdn.Bhd (PMT).

A BioFil system for treatment of toxic laboratory wastewater at UMS Sabah


BioFil reactor contains a bed of suspended micro-organisms at the bottom of the reactor. The feed is maintained to keep the bacteria in suspension. Due to the upflow, very high biomas cencentration can be achieved in this lower section. Large suspended solids together with oil and grease emulsions in the effluent are trapped and degraded within this bed to a more solublesubstrate.

Inert media such as the "Cosmo-ball" are provided in the bioreactor to provide a large surface area for bacteria attachment, exceeding 160 m²/m³. This attached biofilm greatly enhances reactor performance. The media used has been specifically designed to prevent plugging. Solids carry over from the reactor is often very low.

In anaerobic tank, biogas is collected from the head space of the reactor and can be used for electricity or steam generation. The biogas has high calorific value and generally has a methane content of 70% and the remainder being carbon dioxide.

BioFil system can take organic loading rate from as low as 5 kg COD/m³/day to over 20 kg COD/m³/day. Operating temperatures are generally between 27°c and 55°c. Some results have shown that more than 80% BOD5 removal is achievable in BioFil plants.


Industrial Applications: Many industries generate high strength effluent that can easily be treated uing high rate anaerobic treatment such as BioFil. Effluent with BOD5 greater than 100 mg/l are particularly suitable. Large industries with high organic effluent will find BioFil system to their great advantage. Substantial saving in energy costs can be obtained through on-site methane gas utilization.

BioFil is capable of treating wastewater from industries such as:

  • Palm Oil Industries
  • Dairies
  • Ditilleries
  • Abattoir and Meat Processors
  • Vegetable Processors
  • Pharmaceutical and Chemical
  • Poultry Processing
  • Pulp and Paper
  • Rubber Factories
  • Food & Soft Drink Plants
  • Fish Processing
  • Tanneries
  • Hospitals and laboratory wastewater
  • Sewage Treatment Plant

Due to the compact design, BioFil can be configured to suit any area or space constraint faced by industries or housing developers.


Anaerobic Process

Aerobic Process

The inherent principle in design of bioreactors is the establishment of effective contact between the microorganism and the organic pollutants in the effluent. High rate systems are able to provide long solids residence time. BioFil reactors is a hybrid reactor that combines suspended growth and attaches growth systems in one unit. The design is able to exploit the best features of both technologies and overcomes their individual limitations.

BioFil reactors are designed for complex municipal and industrial waste discharge. They rapidly becoming established as the most dependable, cost effective and stable process. In addition they are being used to revamp existing UASB and anaerobic digestor plants because of this enhanced stability. It also improves retention of the bacteria within the reactor volume. BioFil system offers some flexibility and robustness which makes it more attractive than conventional waste treatment system.

Intergrated and fully automated BioFil-AA treating high BOD and COD industrial waste to meet Standard A discharge limit.


Proprietary "Cosmo Balls" greatly enhances process performance.

Cosmo-balls are proprietary plastic medi developed by UPM Waste Technology Centre which are used as filter media in an effluent treatment system. It provides a very large surface needed for microbial attachment in BioFil tank. The used of cosmo-balls will greatly enhance the performance of the biological degradation of organic matter found in waste. Bacterial concentration will develop on the the cosmo ball surfaces in excess of 5000 to 10000 mg/l.

Specification of Cosmo balls

Cosmo-ball media is suitable for both aerobic and anaerobic situation. It is light weight and floats in water and therefore easy to remove or clean whenever required. The material is made of strong polyethylene plastics which will resist even highly corrosive or hazardous effluent. The innovative design of cosmo-balls makes it less prone to clogging as the void spaces provided is in excess of 85%.

Cosmo balls are superior for use as:

  • Septic tank anaerobic filter
  • Biofilters
  • Trickling filter media
  • Sand bed media
  • Imhoff tank filter bed
  • Aeration tank system
  • BAF process
  • RBC media
  • Anaerobic lagoon/ pond
  • Air Scrubber

Cosmo Ball Technical Data

  • Material : Polyethylene (PE)
  • Shape : Spherical
  • Specific Gravity : 0.9
  • Void Fraction : 85%
  • Outer Diameter : 85mm
  • Inner Diameter : 75mm
  • Wall Thickness : >0.5mm
  • Bulk Density : 75kg/m³
  • Specific Surface Area : > 160m²/m²
  • Number of Media/m³ : >2000
  • BOD Loading Factor : up to 5 kg/m³.d
  • Hydraulic Loading Rate : 0.06 m³/m²/hr
  • Number Required/PE : varies with loading


Prof.Dr.Azni bin Idris
Waste Technology Centre
Faculty of Engineering
43000 UPM Serdang, Selangor

Tel: (603) 8946 6302
Fax: (603) 8656 7099
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Sole Agent:

Pakar Management Technology (M) Sdn. Bhd.
Bangunan PMT
C-13 & 15, Jalan Sri Kenari 12
Taman Sri Kenari, 43900 Kajang
Selangor Darul Ehsan

Tel: (603) 8739 6163
Fax: (603) 8739 0746
Email: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it